A dental implant consists essentially of three parts:
- plant or fixtures: titanium structure similar to a screw that is inserted into the bone :
- abutments: a small metal frame that connects the prosthesis to the implant ;
- prosthesis: artificial crown that replaces the natural one.
Dental implants are usually made of pure titanium , being so biocompatible with the human body , provides a strong and stable with the cells of the bone and the gum through a defined process of “osseointegration.” Furthermore, an additional advantage of titanium is that it does not cause almost never allergic reactions , rejection or inflammatory tissue , in addition , also possessing outstanding mechanical qualities , such material is also used for other types of medical implants (for example, in hip) . Dental implants also have different shapes and sizes depending on the amount of bone available at the site of insertion .
Like any other material inserted into the bone and then interacting with the biological system of an individual, the system must be composed of a biomaterial .
Titanium is classified as bioinert, then presents a direct contact between bone and implant. In contrast , in other materials , there is fibrous tissue (biotollerati materials) or chemical-physical connection between bone and implant (bioactive materials) .
Titanium is not only perfectly tolerated by the body , reducing almost to zero the risk of non- osseointegration (rejection), but is also particularly resistant to masticatory and corrosion.
Several scientific studies carried out over the past three decades show that implants placed properly they can last a lifetime, provided it is carried out a thorough daily oral hygiene and we submit to regular dental check-ups.